3. Apr. Die türkische Regierung will Aserbaidschan im Konflikt mit Armenien um das Grenzgebiet Berg-Karabach unterstützen. Die Regierung in Baku. Febr. Die Beziehungen zwischen der Türkei und Aserbaidschan. Aserbaidschanische Sprache (azɘrbaycan dili), auch als Aserbaidschan- Türkisch (azərbaycan . Als eigenständige aserbaidschan-türkische Dialekte gelten auch die Sprachen der Teimurtaş, das auch als „Teimuri“, „Timuri“ oder „ Taimouri“.
In the Roman period, it was expanded under the reigns of Domitian A. While generally used for theatrical performances and public assemblies, it was also used for gladiatorial contests in the later imperial period.
Seating estimates for the Great Roman Theater in Ephesus vary between 25, and 44, Regardless of actual capacity, the theater was in continuous use until the 5th century A.
According to tradition, Saint Paul preached against paganism at this site. Today, partially restored, it is used for an annual festival of culture and art.
Ruins of the Temple of Hadrian in Ephesus. The temple dates to the 2nd century A. The structure has been partially reconstructed from surviving architectural fragments.
Terrace homes in Ephesus built on a hill opposite the Temple of Hadrian. The wealthy families lived here in six multi-family homes built on three terraces.
Most homes were highly decorated and were heated by use of hot water flowing through pipes in the floors and walls. The roof of one house formed the patio or terrace of the house above it.
Work on restoring the houses began in The wealthy families lived in six multi-family homes built on three terraces. Most homes were highly decorated; they were heated by use of hot water flowing through pipes in the floors and walls.
Floor mosaic in a terrace home in Ephesus built on a hill opposite the Temple of Hadrian. View of the port of Kusadasi on the Aegean Sea.
The name Kusadasi means "Bird Island. Its current name was officially adopted at the beginning of the 20th century by Turkish authorities.
Kusadasi is the gateway to the Roman ruins at Ephesus. Some 95 km 57 mi south of Izmir, it has grown since the late s from a fishing village into a major tourist center serving thousands of tourists.
A statue of Kemal Ataturk, the first president of Turkey and the founder of the Turkish Republic, stands on a hill overlooking the city.
View of apartment buildings in the resort town of Kusadasi on the Aegean Sea. The population of the town increases from 65, to , during the tourist season.
Kusadasi is about a minute drive from the Roman ruins at Ephesus. Pigeon Island Guvercin Adasi in the harbor of Kusadasi. The island is connected to the mainland by a causeway.
The fortress dates from the 14th and 15th centuries. In , the castle was rebuilt and the garrison expanded. The island became the focus of the town to the extent that people began referring to the whole town as Kusadasi Bird Island.
Swirls of color ranging from deep olive green to bright turquoise were created by a massive phytoplankton bloom that covered the entire surface of the Black Sea on this image taken 20 June Northern Turkey makes up the southern shore of the sea.
Photo courtesy of NASA. The Bosporus near the center of the photograph , a strait that connects the Black Sea to the north with the Sea of Marmara to the south, stands out in this low-oblique, north-looking photograph.
Istanbul formerly Constantinople , one of the great historic cities of the world, sits near the Bosporus entrance to the Sea of Marmara.
A view of Istanbul as taken from the International Space Station. The metropolis of 15 million occupies both sides of the entrance to the narrow, 32 km- 20 mi- long Bosporus Strait connecting the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara south, on the right to the Black Sea north, on the left.
When this image was taken, strong currents carried turbid coastal waters from the Black Sea through the Strait and into the Sea of Marmara.
The sinuous waterway and harbor on the western shore are known as the Golden Horn. Image courtesy of NASA. The city of Gallipoli Gelibolu in Turkish; light gray to pink area in center of photo sits at a crossroads between the Sea of Marmara to the right and the Dardanelles Strait which leads to the Aegean Sea.
Water in the Strait flows in both northeast and southwest directions due to opposite surface and undercurrents. Several ships are visible in the Strait to the southwest of Gallipoli center left.
This image includes many of the islands of the East Aegean as well as part of mainland Turkey. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, Turkey, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top.
The city is the bright coastal area near the greenish waters of Izmir Bay and southeast of the roughly triangular-shaped island of Lesvos.
The lengthy island at the bottom of the photo is Crete. North of Crete, the small broken ring of islands are the remnants of the collapsed caldera of Santorini Volcano.
This northeast-looking view shows the Ataturk Reservoir and Dam, presently the largest man-made lake in Turkey. The meandering Euphrates River dark line can be seen exiting the scene below the left center of the image.
Smooth lake waters appear as dark blue, while wind-roughened waters appear light blue. The light area to the west of the dam left center is where rocks were quarried for the construction of the dam.
A southwest-looking photograph of south-central Turkey and northwest Syria. The Plain of Adana, an extensive agricultural region, is located northwest of the Gulf of Iskenderun the roughly rectangular-shaped gulf near the center of the photo and is irrigated by the Seyhan River.
Adana, the largest city in the region, can be seen midway between the Gulf and the Taurus Mountains to the west. The island of Cyprus can be seen off the Turkish and Syrian coasts.
Mount Ararat 5, m, 16, ft is the largest volcano in Turkey, but is not currently active. It is located in extreme northeastern Turkey, near the borders with Iran and Armenia.
Southwest of the main peak lies Lesser Ararat 3, m, 12, ft. Ahora Gorge is a northeast-trending chasm dropping from the top of the mountain.
A view of Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey through the fog. The highest of its two peaks, Greater Ararat, is the tallest mountain in Turkey at 5, m 16, ft.
This photo was snapped after take off from the Yerevan airport. Created by volcanic eruptions and shaped by centuries of wind and rain erosion, each of these structures consists of a soft cone topped by a layer of harder rock.
They reach heights of up to 40 m ft. Distinctively shaped volcanic cones in the Cappadocia region of Turkey were shaped by centuries of wind and rain erosion.
The soft rock is easily carved and hardens like concrete when exposed to the air. Many of these structures have been transformed into domestic dwellings.
Seagulls come to rest on one of the colorful fishing boats anchored on the shore of the Bosporus Strait in the heart of historic Istanbul.
The Topkapi Palace courtyard in Istanbul. The Palace was the official residence of the Ottoman Sultans for years.
Construction was begun in , and at its height, the complex housed 4, people. In , a governmental decree transformed the Palace into a museum of the imperial era.
This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends. This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server GNS , maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names.
This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative.
The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. This entry includes three subfields.
This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census.
This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.
When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.
This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea. This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS , which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.
This entry contains a brief description of the topography. This entry includes both the mean elevation and the elevation extremes.
In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future. This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.
This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures.
This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes.
Environment - current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.
Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. Environment - international agreements: This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified.
Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name. This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.
This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends.
The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region.
Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t. This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective.
This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.
This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages. When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language.
For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language. Turkish official , Kurdish, other minority languages.
This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.
Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m. This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age.
Information is included by sex and age group as follows: Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population.
This is the population pyramid for Turkey. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right.
The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top.
The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.
Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others.
Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures.
This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older.
It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan.
See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high. The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country.
The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e.
Rapid population growth can be seen as. This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.
The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.
This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth.
This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining.
This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1, persons based on midyear population.
An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration e. The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan.
This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country.
The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time.
Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th.
Major urban areas - population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least , people.
An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.
For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of , or more, only the population of the capital is presented.
This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 years and over, and for the total population.
Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons.
This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. This entry provides the mean average age of mothers at the birth of their first child.
It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use — particularly among married and unmarried adolescents — delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns.
The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths per , live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes.
The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.
This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year.
This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.
Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.
This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.
The total fertility rate TFR is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman.
This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme.
This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data.
It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP.
This entry gives the number of medical doctors physicians , including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population.
Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 29 September Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 13 October The History of Turkey.
Steadman; Gregory McMahon The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: Retrieved 23 March The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Myers; Astrid Biles Beck Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible.
Retrieved 24 March The origins of the Ottoman Empire. The Arabs of the Ottoman Empire, — A Social and Cultural History. The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire.
Gypsies in the Ottoman Empire: A Contribution to the History of the Balkans. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. Retrieved 7 February The Magnitude of Genocide.
Journal of Genocide Research. Helmreich in Slavic Review , Vol. Retrieved 29 October Eisenstadt, "The Kemalist Regime and Modernization: Some Comparative and Analytical Remarks," in J.
Westview Press, , 3— Turkish Secretariat of European Union Affairs. Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 18 February B 4 November Bulletin of International News.
The New York Times. Retrieved 24 April Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Subscription or UK public library membership required. Retrieved 12 June Archived from the original PDF on 5 May Retrieved 4 May Archived from the original on 17 January Retrieved 9 February Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 4 September An Anomaly in the Archaeology of Empire.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 15 August A Wonder of the Ancient World".
Retrieved 2 February The Un-Greek Temple and Wonder". Retrieved 17 February Lewis; John Boardman The Cambridge Ancient History.
Retrieved 7 April Archived from the original on 20 November Retrieved 22 December Archived from the original on 14 December The Elements of Hittite.
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Retrieved 26 December The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila. Retrieved 21 July Essays in Ottoman and Turkish History, — The Impact of the West.
University of Texas Press. The Cambridge history of Islam Reprint. The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire.
Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 4 August History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Retrieved 15 June A Short History of the Middle East. From Tradition to the Modern Age , Ankara, , Archived from the original PDF on 19 January Retrieved 1 February Retrieved 5 September The Dark Side of Democracy: Retrieved 28 February Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 21 November Retrieved 15 July The Armenian genocide 1st ed.
Greenwood Publishing Group, , p. Retrieved 28 May The Great Game of Genocide: Holocaust and Genocide Studies. The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West.
The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey. Historical Dictionary of Turkey. Political Islam and the Secular State in Turkey: Democracy, Reform and the Justice and Development Party.
A Concise History of Greece. Retrieved 14 August Although the sultanate had already been abolished in November , the republic was founded in October Turkish Politics and the Military.
Retrieved 11 August The Cyprus question as an issue of Turkish foreign policy and Turkish-American relations, — Retrieved 16 August Retrieved 25 December The Guardian — via The Guardian.
Retrieved 6 February Economics and Politics of Turkish Liberalization. Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 6 May Archived from the original PDF on 21 March The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies. Erdogan inaugurates a new political era in Turkey". How powerful will the next Turkish president be?
Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 14 December The Cambridge History of Turkey.
Retrieved 13 June Religion and Politics in Turkey. Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 3 March Europarat warnt vor drohender Autokratie" in German.
Turkey releases official referendum results". Retrieved 2 May TRexit from parliamentary democracy? Retrieved 14 March Retrieved 28 March Revenge of the "deplorables " ".
The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 20 July European Parliament Human Rights committee. Retrieved 2 July During and After the Cold War.
Coming Down from the Mountains. Retrieved 24 July Violence and Restraint in Civil War: Civilian Targeting in the Shadow of International Law. The Middle East 14 ed.
The Turkish military responded with a ferocious counterinsurgency campaign that led to the deaths of nearly 40, people, most of them Turkish Kurdish civilians, and the displacement of more than three million Kurds from southeastern Turkey.
Turkey Ranks First in Violations in between —". Bianet — Bagimsiz Iletisim Agi. Retrieved 29 December Case of Benzer and others v. A People in Search of Their Homeland 1st ed.
Nation Building in a Fragmented Homeland. Univ of Texas Press. The Kurdish question in Turkey: Retrieved 1 January Committee to Protect Journalists.
Retrieved 17 January Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 11 June Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 29 April Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 25 November Turkey report" PDF.
Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 7 June Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey. Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 17 December Retrieved 6 April Army Logistics in the Cold War, — Archived from the original PDF on 16 March Between Neo-Ottomanism and Kemalism".
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 5 June Archived from the original on 28 September Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 19 November Retrieved 27 June Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Retrieved 22 November Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 15 December Archived from the original PDF on 22 November Retrieved 27 December European Bureau for Conscientious Objection".
Retrieved 16 June Natural Resources Defense Council, Archived from the original PDF on 1 January European Union Institute for Security Studies.
Retrieved 3 August The Cypriot Communities and the United Nations. Retrieved 5 April Stephen; Lesser, Ian O. Turkish foreign policy in an age of uncertainty.
Challenges of Transcontinental Regionalism. Handbook of European Societies: Social Transformations in the 21st Century.
Area handbook series fifth ed. US Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 December Turkish Ministry of Tourism.
Retrieved 28 November Armenian Highland, mountainous region of western Asia. It lies mainly in Turkey, occupies all of Armenia, and includes southern Georgia, western Azerbaijan, and northwestern Iran.
Top Birding Sites of the World. University of California Press. Archived from the original on 26 February The last Anatolian Panther.
International Union for Conservation of Nature. Status, conservation and management of large carnivores in Turkey.
Standing Committee, 24th meeting, 29 November-3 December , Strasbourg. General Directorate of Meteorology.
Archived from the original PDF on 28 March Last revised on 22 July World Development Indicators Database.
Retrieved 31 August Archived from the original PDF on 14 June Archived from the original PDF on 10 February Retrieved 9 December Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 5 November Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 17 May TRT will not participate in Eurovision ".
Retrieved 7 November A Song for Europe. Aldershot , Hampshire , England: TRT confirms no return to Eurovision in ".
Retrieved 5 September TRT confirms non participation in Eurovision ". Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 4 August Turkey in the Eurovision Song Contest.
Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia. Retrieved from " https: CS1 Greek-language sources el CS1 Turkish-language sources tr Articles needing additional references from March All articles needing additional references Commons category link is on Wikidata.
National final — — — Internal selection — For the most recent participation see Turkey in the Eurovision Song Contest Did not participate between and Maria Rita Epik andEuroparat warnt vor drohender Eurobasket 2019 tickets berlin in German. Swirls of color ranging from deep olive green to bright turquoise were created by كرة اليوم massive phytoplankton bloom that covered the entire surface of the Black Sea on this image taken 20 June Saint Peter founded one of the first churches in Antioch Antakyathe location of which is regarded by tradition as the spot where he first preached the Gospeland where the umfrage test seriös of Jesus budesliga tabelle called Olympische winterspiele eishockey for the first time in history. Cannabis Cannabis sativa is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and sms spiele marijuana pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefertetrahydroca. Tennis strategie 15 November Article cup dd of the Convention on International Civil Aviation Chicago Conventionsigned inrequires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks. The Topkapi Palace courtyard in Istanbul. During the first six decades of the republic, between andHoffenheim gegen frankfurt generally adhered to a quasi- statist approach with strict government planning of the online casino sunmaker and government-imposed limitations over foreign tradeflow of foreign currencyforeign direct investment and private sector participation in certain fields such as broadcastingtelecommunicationsenergyc-date reviewetc. Views Read Edit View history. Since the liberalisation of the Turkish economy in the s, the netent casino 2019 has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability. This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. Remote Sensing of Urban and Suburban Areas. Royal Academy of Arts.